Ferns: The Pteridophyta Kingdom those Thai Books Published


Ferns are belonging to the group of botanical with other 12,000 other species. They contain leaves and stems (vascular). They reproduce through a process named spores with no flowers and seeds. The history records that the first appear million years ago. But, they disappear when flowering plant infest. They are not very popular like the other plants. However, they are able to remove pollutants from the air. The other thing they can do is remediating the soils from contaminant. In other words, they are very beneficial.

The area of Ferns
Ferns in California grow in woodland. Although it is not a perfect picture, but there they are. Actually they can live in various habitats. The places where they can live are desert, mountain, open fields and many more. The other plants may meet failure to live in the area that is not good, but not for them. They successfully show that they are strong and flexible. They do not have limitation to grow. Other place instead of California, Thailand, also the place where you can find ferns of Thai.

The species of ferns that live in Thailand are over 650 species. Many writers wrote about them and published it in the books. Their taxonomy becomes subject because there are many different opinions about the species, family and general. To see the same combination (from different genera), it just needs to see the synonym words. Now, the researchers use molecular data to solve many ferns problems including what mentioned above.

Ferns family
Ferns propagate through spores. The nonexistence of the seed makes them stated as ferns pteridophyta. This is the plant kingdom where they are included. This term is a modern term because the previous one has the confusion among the other species. In the previous time, they were in the Class Filices. Basically, they cycles as follows. Phase of the diploid sporophyte which is the process of reducing the chromosomes (by the cell). The next 4 phases are growing of a spore, gamete production the fertilization, and diploid sporophyte change.

They are considered to be ‘not too important’ in many arguments and opinions. Their popularity is very low, and seed plants obtain the higher popularity. But some of them used for food. They help humanly with the air too. Cleaning the pollutant is their job. Also, they help the farmer with the soils. So, ferns actually are our friends, and they have many advantages in helping human being.